Infographic: Catching: A History

I haven’t had a chance to do much more than skim all the information on this infographic, but what I’ve noted so far is certainly fascinating.  Click on the image below for a (slightly) larger version — though even then, you might still need to zoom in on it.

catching infographic


Roger Maris

Most baseball fans are familiar with the name Roger Maris.  Those who paid any attention to the home run race of 1998 definitely have a familiarity with the name, because from 1961 until 1998, Roger Maris held Major League Baseball’s single-season home run record.

Roger Eugene Maras was born on September 10, 1934 in Hibbing, Minnesota, the son of Rudolph S. “Rudy” and Corrine Maras (Roger would later change his last name to “Maris”).  Roger also had a brother, Rudy, Jr., who was older by a year.  In 1942, the Maras family moved to Grand Forks, North Dakota, then onto Fargo, North Dakota in 1946.

Maris attended Shanley High School in Fargo, and he met his future wife, Patricia, during his sophomore year.  Roger and Rudy Maras, Jr. both competed in sports throughout high school, including track and football.  During the summers, they participated in American Legion baseball, and in 1950, Roger led his North Dakota legion team to the state championship.  Roger was also a standout football player and was even recruited to play for the University of Oklahoma.  Though he initially planned to attend Oklahoma, he

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Maris in his rookie year with Cleveland (Wikipedia)

changed his mind in favor of staying close to his brother, who had been diagnosed with polio.  Maris instead decided to pursue a baseball career, and at the age of 18, he signed with the Cleveland Indians, starting out with their Fargo farm team.

After a few years in the minors, Maris made his Major League debut on April 16, 1957 playing outfield for the Indians.  Halfway through the 1958 season, he was traded to the Kansas City Athletics.  He recorded 28 home runs during the 1958 season, then in 1959, he represented the A’s in the All-Star game.  However, he missed 45 games during the 1959 season due to an appendix operation and only hit 16 home runs.

In December 1959, Maris was traded to the New York Yankees, along with Kent Hadley and Joe DeMaestri.  In the 1960 season, Maris hit 39 home runs, which was a career high for him at that time, and led the American League with 112 RBIs.  He again played in the All-Star game, and the Yankees won the American League pennant.  However, New York lost the World Series in seven games to the Pittsburgh Pirates.  Maris won the Gold Glove award and was also named the American League’s Most Valuable Player.

Roger Maris

biography.com

In 1961, Major League Baseball extended its season from 154 to 162 games.  When the season started, Maris started out slow, but he hit 11 home runs in the month of May and another 15 in June, putting him on pace to reach the single-season record of 60 set by the Babe Ruth in 1927.  As mid-season approached, it seemed wholly possible that either Maris or fellow Yankee Mickey Mantle, if not both, would break Ruth’s home run record.  The media focused intensely on the home run chase, fabricating a rivalry between Maris and Mantle that didn’t actually exist.

Very much an introvert, Maris grew weary of having to talk about the record with reporters day in and day out, and his hair started falling out due to increasing pressure.  To make matters worse, as the season progressed, there was much discussion as to what would happen if Maris couldn’t break the record within 154 games, some going so far as to say the record didn’t count if Maris couldn’t do it within those 154 games as Ruth did.  The popular belief that an asterisk would be placed on Maris’s record if achieved after 154 games, however, was urban legend.

Maris wound up with 59 home runs during that allotted 154-game time frame, and then Maris tied Ruth in game 159.  He hit his 61st homer on the last day of the season.  From then, until 1991, Ruth and Maris were acknowledged separately in the record books, just not with an asterisk.  Maris also led the AL with 141 RBIs and 132 runs scored in 1961, winning the American League’s Most Valuable Player award once again.  The Yankees went on to win the World Series over the Cincinnati Reds, four games to one.

In 1962, Maris compiled 33 home runs and 100 RBIs and he was named to the All-Star team for the fourth consecutive year.  The Yankees repeated as World Series champs, this time defeating the San Francisco Giants, four games to three.  In 1963, Maris played in only 90 games, hitting 23 home runs.  He also missed much of the World Series due to injury.  In 1964, Maris made a bit of a comeback, appearing in 141 games and batting .281 with 26 home runs.  His play continued to decline after that season, however, and in 1966, the Yankees traded Maris to the St. Louis Cardinals.

Maris played his final two seasons with the Cardinals, helping them to win the 1967 and roger maris cardinals1968 pennants.  While the Cardinals won the 1967 World Series, they lost a very close 1968 Series, four games to three, to the Detroit Tigers.  Maris retired from baseball after that season.

His playing days behind him, Maris and his brother owned and operated Maris Distributing, a Budweiser beer distributorship in Gainesville, Florida.  Maris also coached baseball at Gainesville’s Oak Hall High School, which named its baseball field after him in 1990.  On July 21, 1984, his jersey number 9 was permanently retired by the Yankees, and that same year, the Roger Maris Museum was opened in the West Acres Mall in Fargo.

In 1983, Maris was diagnosed with Non-Hodgkin lymphoma.  He died from the disease in Houston, Texas, on December 14, 1985.  He was buried at Holy Cross Cemetery in Fargo, North Dakota.


This day in baseball: Gehrig’s streak begins

Lou Gehrig made the only pinch-hit appearance of his career on June 1, 1925 when he came off the bench to hit for infielder Pee-Wee Wanninger.  While the common tale told is that Gehrig’s 2,130-game streak started when he replaced Wally Pipp at first base (held out of the line-up due to the aftereffects of a concussion), the first game of Gehrig’s streak actually came the day before, with this pinch-hit appearance.

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The ALS Association Greater Philadelphia Chapter


This day in baseball: Introduction of the spitball

According to legend, the spitball made its debut on May 29, 1905, introduced by Dodger hurler Elmer Stricklett in a game against the New York Giants. Stricklett managed to defeat the Giants, 4-3.

While it is widely accepted that Stricklett was one of the early pioneers of the spitball, Stricklett himself denied that he actually invented the pitch. Stricklett did, however, claim to be the first pitcher to master the pitch and to feature it as the key pitch in his arsenal.

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Elmer Stricklett (Wikipedia)


This day in baseball: Coveleski’s long start

On May 24, 1918, right-hander Stan Coveleski pitched 19 innings in the Indians’ 3-2 victory over the Yankees at the Polo Grounds.  Smoky Joe Wood hit a home run in the top of the 19th for the Tribe that proved to be the difference.  Coveleski gave up 12 hits and 6 walks with 4 strikeouts over the course of the game.

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Coveleski (Wikipedia)


This day in baseball: Palmer’s debut

Orioles pitcher Jim Palmer, aged nineteen, made his Major League debut on May 16, 1965 when he came on in relief to pitch 3.2 innings. The O’s defeated the Yankees, 7-2, and Palmer recorded his first major league win. To top it all off, Palmer also managed to hit a two-run home run off Yankees starting pitcher Jim Bouton in the fourth inning. Palmer would finish the season with a 5-4 record.

palmer


Effa Louise Manley

effa manley

Inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 2006, Effa Louise Manley co-owned the Newark Eagles baseball franchise in the Negro leagues (alongside her husband, Abe Manley) from 1935 to 1946. After her husband’s death, she then became sole owner of the team through 1948. She was also a noted activist, active in the Civil Rights Movement and serving as treasurer of the Newark chapter of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).

Effa Manley was born on March 27, 1897 in Philadelphia (some sources cite her birth year as 1900). Her actual racial background also remains a mystery — some speculate that she was of mixed race while others believe she was a white woman who could pass as black. Manley herself seemed to enjoy the confusion generated by her ethnic background. She graduated from Penn Central High School in 1916, completing vocational training in cooking, oral expression, and sewing. Following high school, she moved to New York City.

In New York, Manley could often be found at Yankee Stadium, taking in ballgames. “Babe Ruth made a baseball fan of me,” Manley reportedly said. “I used to go to Yankee Stadium just to see him come to bat.” At a World Series game in 1932, Manley met her future husband, Abe. The couple married in 1935, and he involved her in the operation of his own club, the Newark Eagles in New Jersey.

As co-owner of the Eagles, Manley didn’t fit into the traditional 1930s homemaker mold for women. She managed day-to-day business operations for the team, handled contracts and travel schedules, and she proved particularly talented at marketing. She developed a number of promotions that advanced the Civil Rights Movement as well as a variety of other causes and benefits. Under Manley’s leadership, the Eagles invited soldiers during World War II to Eagles games for free. They also hosted benefits for various causes, including the Harlem Fight for Freedom Committee and the Newark Community Hospital. Within the Negro Leagues, Manley worked to improve conditions for players in the entire league. She advocated for better scheduling, better pay, and better accommodations. Under Manley, the Newark Eagles traveled in an air-conditioned bus, a rare luxury in the Negro Leagues.

During Manley’s time with the team, the Eagles won the Negro League World Series in 1946. Among the Eagles players during Manley’s ownership were future MLB stars such as Larry Doby, Monte Irvin, and Don Newcombe.

Following integration of Major League Baseball, attendance at Eagles games plummeted, from 120,000 in 1946 to 57,000 in 1948. Like many other Negro League teams, Newark found itself unable to continue generating profits. Even after selling the club to a group of investors in 1948, Manley continued to stay involved in baseball. She co-authored a book on black baseball with Leon Hardwick, and she donated a scrapbook of her years with Newark to the Baseball Hall of Fame. She also wrote letters lobbying for Negro leaguers to be admitted into Cooperstown.

Effa Manley died of a heart attack on April 16, 1981. She was buried in Culver City at the Holy Cross Cemetery. She was the first woman inducted into the Hall of Fame.